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The IDA states that it is a specific learning disability that is neurobiological in origin. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and /or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction. Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede growth of vocabulary and background knowledge.
International Dyslexia Association, 2004
Individuals with dyslexia have trouble with reading, writing, spelling and/or math even though they have the ability and have had opportunities to learn. Individuals with dyslexia can learn, but they often need specialized instruction to overcome the problem. Often these individuals, who have talented and productive minds, are said to have a language learning difference. Most of us have one or two of these characteristics. That does not mean that everyone has dyslexia. A person with dyslexia usually has several of these characteristics that persist and interfere with functioning over time.
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Dyslexia is one of several distinct learning disabilities. It is a specific, language-gased disorder of constitutional origin characterized by difficulties in single word decoding, usually reflecting insufficient phonological processing abilities. These difficulties in single word decoding are often unexpected in relation to age and other cognitive and academic abilities; they are not the result of generalized developmental disability or sensory impairment. Dyslexia is manifested by variable difficulty with different forms of language, often including, in addition to problems reading, a conspicuous problem with acquiring proficiency in writing and spelling.
G. Reid Lyon
"Toward a Definition of Dyslexia
Annals of Dyslexia, Volume XLV, 1995
Relatives may have similar problems. Teacher says, “If only she would try harder." Child may have difficulty naming colors, objects, and letters rapidly, in a sequence. Others in family have weak memory for lists, directions, or facts. Some may need to see or hear concepts many times to learn them. Often, dyslexia is accompanied by ADHD.
This can be referred to as dyscalculia.
Dyslexia and ADHD can occur together, or separately. Often, one can mask the other. ADHD can be primarily inattentive, primarily hyperactive, or a combined type. This neurological difference is caused by chemical imbalance in the processing centers of the brain. Symptoms include:
If you suspect that you or your child might have a problem with reading, then get an evaluation by a professional that specializes in the identification of dyslexia. There is not a single test that will identify this specific type of reading problem. The person will need to be tested in the areas of decoding words, encoding words, reading comprehension, phonemic awareness and achievement. The most important thing is, DO NOT WAIT. Research has proven that the sooner we find dyslexia and begin intervention, the better the success.
If your child is having difficulties learning to read and you have noted several of these characteristics in your child, he or she may need to be evaluated for dyslexia or a related disorder. We provide quality evaluation of children to identify underlying causes of academic difficulties. We place special emphasis on early identification of the learning disability of Dyslexia.
The Comprehensive Psycho-Educational Evaluation consists of standardized, norm-referenced assessment tools administered by licensed practitioners and generally includes four components:
· Cognitive skills assessment which measures the student’s core ability to learn and can pinpoint the root causes of persistent learning problems.
· Achievement assessment which measures proficiency in specific subjects and can alert parents to holes in their children’s education.
· Verbal Language assessmentwhich measures expressive and receptive communication skills necessary for academic achievement. Undiagnosed language disorders are often the underlying cause of difficulty with learning.
· Reading assessment which focuses on the skills and underlying systems necessary for fluent, efficient reading. The information gained by such testing is specific and can be critical as you help your child overcome problems and succeed in school.
Don't miss work or school. Schedule testing for Saturday morning when students are available and not burdened with academic work. Follow up reporting session scheduled for after work. We work with you to make the process painless and affordable.
Comprehensive evaluations typically require 4-6 hours of individual testing time and may be conducted over several sessions, depending on the tolerance of the child. A post-evaluation conference will be scheduled to review the findings and answer any questions. Results are presented to the parents and a complete written report will be provided following the conference. Once testing has been completed, estimated time to conference is 3-6 weeks with variations due to scheduling and response to requests for additional information.
Our diagnosticians are licensed through the Mississippi Department of Education.
Adina Griffith, Ed.S, CALT
· Licensed Psychometrist
· Licensed Dyslexia Therapist
· Certified Academic Language Therapist
For more information or assistance with scheduling an evaluation, please contact:
Adina Griffith, Evaluations Coordinator
or call the office to schedule your appointment
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Recent research in the area of language-literacy disorders supports the use of an evaluation protocol that includes a range of measures across the language processes that are the most predictive of reading success (Harlaar, N. et al., 2010), including descriptive measures (Marquart & Gillam,1999).
The Lexercise evaluation protocol is process-oriented in that it focuses on specific language processes that have been shown to be the most important underpinnings (and the most predictive) for language-literacy development. According to Harlaar, et al. (2010) these processes are:
For students whose symptoms include lexical access difficulties, such as word-finding difficulties and/or problems with rapid naming, additional procedures are included (e.g., calculation of a difference score contrasting expressive vocabulary with receptive vocabulary and/or the Lexercise Verbal Fluency Assessment).
The instruments and procedures used for the Lexercise online evaluations have been selected because they:
The Lexercise evaluation protocols for both children / adolescents and for adults are based on the Simple View of Reading theoretical model.
Basic diagnostic questions are:
The clinician administering a process-focused assessment must have:
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